An attempt to better understand radiation recall events: A literature review. Protein and caloric malnutrition are common issues in cancer patients who have undergone prior treatment or have a compromised immune status, leading to complications such as wound dehiscence, sepsis, and longer hospitalizations. Some warning signs of cancer that should always warrant evaluation by a clinician include rectal bleeding, vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women, a lump in the breast, abdominal bloating or distension that does not resolve, unexplained weight loss, or a productive cough with hemoptysis (blood-streak sputum or coughing up blood clots). Obesity, a well-known major global health challenge, is objectively measured as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, and defined by excess fat accumulation in relation to height. Radiation-induced secondary malignancies (RISM) is an important late side effect of radiation therapy, as after surviving a primary malignancy, about 17%–19% patients go on to develop a second malignancy, and about 5% of these are related to radiation therapy (Morton, Onel, Curtis, Hungate, & Armstrong, 2014). All Rights Reserved. The oncology nurses' role when a patient is diagnosed with cancer centers on two main domains: to be informative and supportive. While teaching is a primary responsibility of the radiation oncology nurse, as safety is of utmost concern in this patient population, nurses also play a vital role in symptom management. Polovich, M., Olsen, M., & LeFebvre, K. (2014). American Cancer Society Prevention and Early Detection Guidelines, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/healthy/find-cancer-early/cancer-screening-guidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer.html, American Cancer Society. Obese women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die from other obesity-related diseases than endometrial cancer (Jenabi & Poorolajal, 2015). There are four main goals of cancer therapy, which include: prevention, cure, control, and palliation (Yarbro et al., 2018). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2019), 80% of people will get an HPV infection in their lifetime, and approximately 14 million Americans become infected with HPV each year. Oncology nurses manage intravenous lines, including central venous devices, which require continuous and ongoing monitoring. The Four Goals and Four Treatment Modalities. The effect of body mass index on endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Nurses teach patients coughing, deep breathing, and demonstrate the use of incentive spirometers to prevent pneumonia and lung infections. NCCN Guidelines for Treatment of Cancer by Site. It has its own unique requirements—things that can tax a nurse both professionally and emotionally—but it also offers tremendous rewards. The treatment is delivered in a radiation-shielded room to protect others from exposure, and patients are not considered "radioactive" after each treatment. Some cancers, such as leukemia and lymphoma, often exhibit a cluster of symptoms that suggest the diagnosis, such as constitutional symptoms of unexpected weight loss, night sweats, lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), and excessive fatigue. Surgery is not indicated in all cancers, but clinical research has helped to define better the parameters and indications for surgical intervention, as well as the ideal time for the patient to undergo surgery (Yarbro et al., 2018). As treatments have become increasingly complex, so has the collaborative relationship between the nurse and the physician/provider team. Since the nurse is often the first and last healthcare professional to ensure that safety standards are implemented for patients with cancer, the development of standardized oncology nurse generalist competencies help safeguard patients and secure quality professional practice. NursingCE.com is a comprehensive online resource to help nurses meet continuing education (CE) and licensing requirements for all 50 states, Washington, D.C. and Guam. Internal radiation is further subdivided into two categories: brachytherapy and radioactive liquid or injection (Nettina, 2019). Surgical Oncology Nursing reviews a variety of tumor types, from breast cancer to skin cancer, and details the specifics for the care of each patient population. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 36(15_supplement), 22109. Radiation therapy is a localized treatment that has become more precise and effective over time; however, it still carries a slew of associated side effects and toxicities. Cancer may present in many other ways, so a thorough history taking and physical assessment are critical (Yarbro et al., 2018). Radiation recall can occur weeks, months, or even years after radiation therapy has ended. (2019a). Radiation Oncology, 36(2), 85-94. doi: 10.3587/roj.2018.00290, Itano, J. K. (2016). One prime example of the relationship between cancer and obesity is endometrial (uterine) cancer. Describe the pathophysiology of cancer and the basis for cancer diagnosis and staging. Screenings allow for the early detection of cancers when they are still treatable or potentially curable. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prev, 25(7), 1029-1036. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965, Boerma, M., Sridharan, V., Mao, X. W., Nelson, G. A., Cheema, A. K., Koturbash, I., …Hauer-Jensen, M. (2016). The first stage, dry desquamation, is the peeling of the top layer of skin and becomes increasingly uncomfortable as the underlying nerve endings are exposed to air. Papatla, K., Huang, M., & Slomovitz, B. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/cancer.html, DeVita, V. T., Lawrence, T. S., & Rosenberg, S. A. As part of its mission to promote excellence in oncology nursing, the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS), an accredited organization by the American Nurses Credential Center's Commission on Accreditation, developed core competencies for the oncology nurse generalist identifying the fundamental knowledge, skills, and expertise required for a novice oncology nurse to proficiently perform the role (ONS, 2016). bowel obstruction) to promote comfort and quality of life without the goal of curing the disease, To alleviate pain produced by tumor extension into surrounding nerves, Repair of defects from prior surgical resection, Can be performed early (breast reconstruction) or delayed (head and neck surgery), Radiation delivered from a source outside the body, directly to the cancer site, Implantation of a wire, seed, pellet or catheter into the body within or near the tumor, May be delivered using low-dose rate (LDR) or high-dose rate (HDR), Administration of radioactive liquid, tablet, or injection, which causes systemic irradiation.
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